- Thank for van de ven’s contribution to the study of space in architecture. From my point of view, this is an absolutely unparalleled work. The rise of the notion of architectural space started since the late 19th century and, especially in German architectural circle, got developed into a very mature status until 1930. In association with the aesthetic theory of empathy and philosophy, the understanding of space has gone through mainly three major stages: (1) space as volume; (2) sense of space as the projection of human experience of tectonic architecture; and (3) spatiality as lived experience by virtue of optical and bodily movement of the spectator. Presenting as a detailed discussion of the formation of the idea of space. Van de Ven’s book makes clear there was almost no limit to the production of meanings of ‘space’ in this period, every architect and writer inventing new inflections. One thing that I feel that was missing in this work is the correlation between the new conception of space-time in modern physics and architectural innovation. Another surprise is that it seems that Van de Ven chose this subject because of the influence of Louis Kahn as Kahn said that “architecture is the thoughtful making of spaces. The continual renewal of architecture comes from changing.